Daily Newspaper article’s summary 2018-07-26

Daily Newspaper article’s summary 2018-07-26

Summary of Newspaper artciles from ‘The Hindu’, ‘Economic Times’ and PIB
ARISE IAS: Demystifying UPSC IAS exams

Detention no cure:
1.Although many States want such a change, the amendment passed by the Lok Sabha goes against the view of many educationists, who argue that it would weaken one of the progressive features of the RTE Act, which is to guarantee the continued presence of the child in school during the formative learning phase.
2.In fact, in 2016 the NITI Aayog found, based on a study in Punjab, that bringing back detention in elementary schooling would increase the dropout rate, impacting the poor and Dalits the most as they depended on government institutions.
3.The move to introduce examinations as filters has not been fully thought through, and may be a hasty response to demands from State governments which want to be seen as acting firmly in favour of quality.

Sanctions relief:
1.The U.S. Congress’s report allowing the introduction of a presidential waiver of its controversial Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) will be greeted with a sense of relief in both New Delhi and Washington.
2.After months of testimony, including a final push for waiver for countries like India, Indonesia and Vietnam by U.S. Defence Secretary James Mattis a few days ago, the Congressional committee has relented.
3.The “modified waiver authority”, or amendment to Section 231 of CAATSA proposed by Congress, allows the President to waive sanctions in certain circumstances, for six months at a time, as long as he certifies that it is in the U.S.’s national security interests and does not “endanger” ongoing operations.

Muzzling information:
1.The RTI Act has been used extensively by citizens to question the highest offices in the country — from the educational qualifications of the Prime Minister and assets of public servants to human rights violations and false claims made by government functionaries — and seek answers from them.
2.The principle of statutorily securing tenure, and protecting the terms of service by equating it to functionaries of constitutional bodies, is routinely adopted to ensure independent functioning of statutory oversight institutions like the Central Vigilance Commission and the Lokpal.
3.The fixed tenure and high status conferred on Commissioners under the RTI Act is to empower them to carry out their functions autonomously, without fear or favour, and direct even the highest offices to comply with the provisions of the law.

Israel’s new law is a form of apartheid:
1.This is not an easy task in our times as it had been during the days of colonialism and imperialism — partly because of international sensitivity about ethnic cleansing and mainly due to Palestinian steadfastness.
2.For those of us who struggle for justice and equality in Palestine, India symbolised the way forward in its anti-colonialist liberation campaign and its resistance in being drawn into Cold War imperialist politics.
3.Tolerating a new apartheid state in West Asia, with international and particularly Western immunity, will not help the Arab world get out of the horrific bloodshed that it experiences these days.

The minutiae of the Rafale deal:
1.In September 2016, India and France signed a €7.87 billion Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) for 36 Rafale multi-role fighter jets in fly-away condition.
2.The party implied that it would benefit the Anil Ambani group that was selected by Dassault to execute part of the offset contract.
3.While the agreement does not specifically refer to the details of cost, Article 4 of the agreement on security principles says: “The receiving party shall not disclose classified information and material to a third party, state, individual or legal entity with a third State’s nationality…” It also states that access to classified information and material would be based on “need-to-know” principle.

What is hotelling’s law in economics?:
1.Also known as the law of minimal differentiation, this refers to the economic observation that competitors in a market economy tend to offer products that are similar to each other.
2.So most businesses end up offering similar products that appeal to most customers.
3.Hotelling’s law is named after American economist Harold Hotelling who proposed it in his 1929 paper “Stability in competition”.

India’s Magna Carta:
1.This cannot come as a surprise because the report recommended that “the Provinces are the domain in which the earlier steps towards the progressive realisation of responsible government should be taken”.
2.Another one of the most far-reaching objectives of the report was to elucidate the principle of accountable governance by directing that the “Government of India must remain wholly responsible to Parliament.”
3.The MCR on Indian constitutional reforms along with the Montagu Declaration are, thus, worthy claimants of the title of the Magna Carta of modern India.

Different messages, different methods:
1.Where the AAGC is a consultative initiative between three equal partners (India, Japan and Africa), the BRI is more of a top-down, unilateral approach to secure Chinese interests, which would eventually traverse continental Asia to reach Europe.
2.It is inevitable that as the centre of gravity of global politics and economics shifts to the Indo-Pacific region, emerging powers like India and China will begin to play a larger role in Africa.
3.Harsh V. Pant is Director, Studies, Observer Research Foundation (ORF), New Delhi and Professor of International Relations at King’s College London.

Parting, departing reflections of a Chief Economic Advisor:
1.Policy advisers must understand the psychology of the key decision-makers in Government, not least because persuasion involves stoking vanities, avoiding ruffling egos, exploiting idiosyncracies, discerning biases and prejudices, and pressing the right buttons at the right moments.
2.Whether writing comprehensive and ambitious Economic Surveys, working on the numerous policy issues, preparing high-frequency briefs, or understanding data better, the CEA has to form a core team built around the IES staff in the Ministry of Finance and then add to, as appropriate, it with “outsiders” (such as bright young researchers from universities) and colleagues in other parts of government.
3.In addition, that expertise should extend to macro-development economics (for example, trade, tax, fiscal, and financial policies) in order to handle the range of issues that the Ministry of Finance in inevitably involved in and that India will necessarily confront as a still-developing country.

The Sabarimala singularity:
1.But, as a study of the rival contentions made before the five-judge Bench that heard arguments shows us, the religious freedom clauses in the Constitution are possessed of a special complexity, which the court’s own past jurisprudence has turned into a quagmire of contradictions.
2.It accords to the state a power to make legislation, in the interests of social welfare and reform, throwing open Hindu religious institutions of public character to all classes and sections of Hindus.
3.If the court can look beyond the essential practices doctrine and see this case for what it really is — a denial to women not only of their individual rights to freedom of religion but also of equal access to public space — it can help set the tone for a radical re-reading of the Constitution.

New industrial policy may suggest listing of power distributing companies:
1.Listing of discoms would bring in transparency in their operations and also force them to become more efficient, they said adding “ideally power should be charged on cost plus basis”.
2.Listing of discoms would bring in transparency in their operations and also force them to become more efficient, they said adding “ideally power should be charged on cost plus basis”.
3.The new policy may also recommend rationalisation of open access charges (OAC) with a view to realise the goal of one national market for power.

Government proposes buy-back policy for highways:
1.The government is considering a buy-back policy for National Highways and a draft has been sent for legal opinion, Parliament was informed today.
2.A draft Buy-back Policy has been considered by NHAI Board which has been sent for legal vetting,” Road Transport and Highways Minister Nitin Gadkari informed Lok Sabha in a written reply.
3.After the legal vetting, the draft will be submitted to the ministry for consideration, he said.

Exploitation of Atomic Minerals:
1.Government of India is aware of the fact that 10.98 million tonnes of resources of Molybdenum Ore is located in Tamil Nadu.
2.However, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has not taken up any project for exploitation of Molybdenum available near Harur Taluk, Dharmapuri District in Tamil Nadu.
3.In respect of beach sand minerals, the mining operations are being carried out by both PSUs and private entrepreneurs.

Surveillance System in Toll Plazas:
1.Surveillance System in Toll Plazas The Minister of State for Road Transport and Shipping and Chemical & Fertilizers Shri Mansukh L Mandaviya in a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha today informed that the Government has planned to install video surveillance system in all toll plazas to monitor traffic.
2.The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) had invited e-bids from eligible bidders for setting up Central Command & Control Centre at NHAI-HQ connected with Regional Offices and CCTV Surveillance & Monitoring of Vehicular Congestion on 210 Fee Plazas of National Highways.
3.36,03,56,380 for complete turnkey solution for setting up Central Command & Control Centre at NHAI-HQ connected with Regional Offices and Fee Plazas for a duration of five years.

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