Daily Newspaper article’s summary 2018-09-28

Daily Newspaper article’s summary 2018-09-28

Summary of Newspaper artciles from ‘The Hindu’, ‘Economic Times’ and PIB
ARISE IAS: Demystifying UPSC IAS exams

A fraught timeline: on Ayodhya title suit case:
1.The Supreme Court’s refusal to refer some questions of law in the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid dispute to a seven-judge Bench has one immediate consequence: it could expedite the final hearing in the appeals against the Allahabad High Court’s compromise judgment of 2010 in the main title suit.
2.Justice Ashok Bhushan’s main opinion has sought to give a quietus to the controversy by declaring that “the questionable observations” were to be treated only as observations made in the context of whether land on which a mosque stood can be acquired by the government.
3.Sunni Central Wakf Board, Nirmohi Akhara and Ram Lalla, the deity, can only be tested against evidence adduced during trial and not by pronouncements on the significance of places of worship or practices in a particular religion.

Not a crime: on Supreme Court’s adultery ruling:
1.The cleansing of the statute books of provisions that criminalise consensual relations among adults continues, with the Supreme Court finally striking down a colonial-era law that made adultery punishable with a jail term and a fine.
2.In treating women as their husband’s property, as individuals bereft of agency, the law was blatantly gender-discriminatory; aptly, the Court also struck down Section 198(2) of the CrPC under which which the husband alone could complain against adultery.
3.It is only in a progressive legal landscape that individual rights flourish — and with the decriminalisation of adultery India has taken another step towards rights-based social relations, instead of a state-imposed moral order.

Oil-slicked debt trap:
1.It predicted that crude prices will touch $85 a barrel following a squeeze in global supplies, resulting from lower Iranian exports in the wake of U.S. sanctions.
2.Recently, PDVSA agreed to compensate the U.S. exploration group, ConocoPhillips, to the tune of $2 billion — a sizeable chunk of Venezuelan foreign reserves — following an International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) ruling in April.
3.The ICC decision was followed in May by a law suit in New York to recover a $25 million promissory note guaranteed by a PDVSA subsidiary, raising the prospects of more action to redeem other pledges.

What is Brownian motion in physics?:
1.This refers to the random and erratic movement of microscopic particles that are suspended in any fluid, like water or oil.
2.Brownian motion is the result of the impact of the random bombardment of microscopic particles by the variety of fast-moving molecules that constitute the fluid.
3.The phenomenon is named after the English botanist Robert Brown, who in 1827 discovered the molecular composition of matter through the observation of the random movement of pollen grains in a liquid.

Should the convicts in the Rajiv Gandhi case be released?:
1.A subsequent reference to a Constitution Bench resulted in a recalibration of the powers vested with the State government under the CrPC in Union of India v. V. Sriharan .
2.Rule 341 states that the Advisory Board of the prison shall deem life imprisonment to be “imprisonment for twenty years” for consideration for premature release or parole.
3.Even otherwise, given the large political conspiracy involved in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, there does not appear to be any justification for exercising the extraordinary powers of pardon in their case.

Criminalising talaq-e-biddat:
1.The ordinance reiterates the Supreme Court verdict that “any pronouncement” of talaq by “a Muslim husband upon his wife, by words, either spoken or written or in electronic form or in any other manner whatsoever, shall be void and illegal.” According to Section 4, any Muslim husband who pronounces instant talaq will be punished with imprisonment of up to three years and will be liable to a fine.
2.Section 5 entitles a married Muslim woman upon whom talaq is pronounced to receive a “subsistence allowance”, to be determined by a First Class Judicial Magistrate, from her husband for herself and their dependent children.
3.The ordinance allows a married Muslim woman to retain the custody of her minor children in the event of pronouncement of instant triple talaq.

Idlib, the final frontier:
1.The agreement, according to which Russia and Turkey will establish a demilitarised zone along the line of contact between Idlib’s militants and regime forces, has averted an imminent humanitarian crisis, but it also shows the increasing uneasiness in Russia’s policy towards a conflict which has bogged it down.
2.If it were on the brink of collapse in September 2015 when Russia made its intervention, the regime has recaptured most major population centres including Aleppo, Daraa and Eastern Ghouta, ever since.
3.Just as it took a relatively independent line towards the Iran-Israel rivalry within Syria — by allowing Israel to target Iranian positions while at the same time supporting Iran in battles against rebels — Russia finally sided with Turkey over Idlib, while not giving up its commitment to the Syrian state.

Finding an equilibrium:
1.“[A]nnoyance, despair, ecstasy, euphoria, coupled with rhetoric, [were] exhibited by both sides”, but Justice Sikri rightly stressed the “posture of calmness”; the political fallouts of a decision, even in an election year, cannot be a matter for judicial concern.
2.The Constitution is not a political tactic, it is not a mere ‘play thing’ of a special majority as Justice M. Hidayatullah said in Sajjan Singh v. State of Rajasthan (1965), laying the foundations of what became the doctrine of basic structure and essential features.
3.Why was the majority not persuaded by the Chandrachud dissent is a question that will for long haunt those who prize democracy and rule of law values as essential for the future of putting the Constitution to work.

State GST collection showing improvement over last year: Arun Jaitley:
1.Finance Minister Arun Jaitley addresses the GST council meeting via video conferencing at North Block, in New Delhi, on September 28, 2018.
2.Expressing satisfaction with GST collection trends, the government on Friday said the states were on the path of meeting their revenue targets by themselves, thereby not needing compensation from the Centre after the five-year period of its implementation.
3.Jaitley said that despite adding three increments for 14 per cent, the North East states had no revenue shortfall which was a “first sign of encouragement”.

GST Council sets up GoM on imposing cess in case of disasters:
1.Jaitley said it was important to have a mature view on the issue instead of acting in haste as this would set a precedent for future natural calamities as well.
2.Jaitley said it was important to have a mature view on the issue instead of acting in haste as this would set a precedent for future natural calamities as well.
3.The Minister said that while there were various views among the council members, all states agreed that something must be done to address the devastating Kerala floods and similar calamities in future.

Two MoU’s signed between India and Uzbekistan on infrastructure and capacity building in ICT sector:
1.Ravi Shankar Prasad and the Minister for Development of Information Technologies and Communications, Uzbekistan Mr Shuhrat Sadikov was held in New Delhi for strengthening bilateral cooperation between the two countries in ICT sector.
2.The Uzbek side appreciated India’s achievement under the Digital India programme and expressed interest for cooperation in the area of IT-ITeS trade promotion, e-Governance, HRD and Capacity building, Telemedicine etc.
3.b) Declaration of Intent between CDAC, India and Tashkent University of Information Technologies, Uzbekistan for cooperation in the area of capacity building in ICT sector.

Shri Piyush Goyal Launches Rail Heritage Digitisation Project of Indian Railways in collaboration with Google Arts & Culture:
1.Speaking on the occasion, Shri Piyush Goyal said “ At the outset, let me congratulate the Indian Railways and the Google Arts and Culture Association for this wonderful initiative, which has taken over 2 years of hard work, research, inquiry and execution.
2.Whenever we look at the evolution of the transport system in India, all these rich traditions, history and culture will play an important role in understanding how the Indian Railways has evolved.
3.Bringing this journey to the forefront, Google Arts & Culture’s new online collection is a story-telling marvel, and will make India’s rich rail-heritage and legacy digitally accessible to people in India around the world.

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