Urban Floods In India

Urban Floods In India

 

Over the last 15 years, there has been a constant rise in the urban floods across cities in India including Chennai (2004, 2010, 2015), Srinagar (2014), Jamshedpur (2008), Kolkata (2007), Bangalore (2005), Surat (2006), Mumbai (2005), Delhi (2002, 2003), and Ahmadabad (2001) , Recently Mumbai ( 2017).

A​ ​flood​ ​is​ ​an​ ​overflow​ ​of​ ​a​ ​large​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​water​ ​beyond​ ​its​ ​normal​ ​limits,​ ​especially over​ ​what​ ​is​ ​normally​ ​dry​ ​land. ​ ​

Flood​ ​may​ ​be

1.​ ​ ​Areal​ ​(​ ​Floods​ ​can​ ​happen​ ​on​ ​flat​ ​or​ ​low-lying​ ​areas​ ​when​ ​water​ ​is​ ​supplied​ ​by​ ​rainfall or​ ​snowmelt​ ​more​ ​rapidly​ ​than​ ​it​ ​can​ ​either​ ​infiltrate​ ​or​ ​runoff.​ ​The​ ​excess​ ​accumulates​ ​in place,​ ​sometimes​ ​to​ ​hazardous​ ​depth)

2.​ ​Riverine​ ​(Channel)​ ​overflow

3.Estuarine​ ​and​ ​coastal

4.​ ​Urban​ ​flooding

5.​ ​Rural​ ​flooding

Urban flooding​ ​is​ ​different​ ​from​ ​rural​ ​flooding​ ​as​ ​urbanisation leads​ ​to​ ​developed​ ​catchment​ ​areas​ ​which​ ​increased​ ​the flood​ ​peaks​ ​and​ ​flood​ ​volume​ ​.​ ​Urban​ ​areas​ ​are​ ​densely populated​ ​and​ ​witness​ ​loss​ ​of​ ​life​ ​and​ ​property​ ​,​ ​disruption in​ ​transport​ ​and​ ​power​ ​and​ ​incidents​ ​of​ ​epidemics.

Damages​ ​from​ ​urban​ ​flooding​ ​can​ ​be​ ​grouped​ ​into​ ​two​ ​categories:

Direct​ ​damage  —typically​ ​material​ ​damage​ ​caused​ ​by​ ​water​ ​or​ ​flowing​ ​water.

Indirect​ ​damage  —social​ ​consequences​ ​that​ ​are​ ​negative​ ​long​ ​term​ ​effects​ ​of​ ​a​ ​more psychological​ ​character,​ ​like​ ​decrease​ ​of​ ​property​ ​values​ ​in​ ​frequently​ ​flooded​ ​areas​ ​and Arise IAS delayed​ ​economical​ ​development,​ ​for​ ​e.g.​ ​traffic​ ​disruptions,​ ​administrative​ ​and​ ​labour costs,​ ​production​ ​losses,​ ​spreading​ ​of​ ​diseases,​ ​etc.

Causes​ ​of​ ​Urban​ ​floods

1.Unplanned urbanisation Causes​ ​increased​ ​volume​ ​and​ ​rate​ ​of​ ​surface​ ​runoff​ ​from​ ​developed​ ​lands,​ ​which​ ​leads to​ ​more​ ​ ​flash​ ​flooding​ ​and​ ​increased​ ​extent,​ ​height​ ​and​ ​frequency​ ​of​ ​flooding.

2. Development in flood-prone areas leads​ ​to​ encroachment and​ ​alteration​ ​of​ ​floodplain​ ​which​ ​in​ ​turn​ reduces flood storage capacity, increasing downstream flood.

3. Increase of impervious surfaces like roads, roofs means more runoff.

4. Inefficient and non- upgraded drainage system leads to blockage

5. Pollution :: Litter, building debris, sediments and solid waste are the main causes of blockages of the drainage system and subsequent flooding. There has been an explosive increase in the urban population without corresponding expansion of civic facilities such as adequate infrastructure for the disposal of waste. Hence, as more people are migrating to cities, the urban civic services are becoming less adequate. As a result, almost all urban water bodies in India are suffering because of pollution. In many cases the water bodies have been turned into landfills.

6. Lack of political accountability of all levels of Govt.

7. Lack of coordination among agencies

8. Attitude of people :: do not pay attention towards early warnings and consequences of illegal constructions in low lying areas.

9. Deforestation ::​ ​large​ ​areas​ ​of​ ​forests​ ​near​ ​the​ ​rivers/ catchments​ ​of​ ​cities​ ​are​ ​being​ ​cleared​ ​to​ ​construct settlements​ ​,​ ​farmlands​ ​due​ ​to​ ​which​ ​soil​ ​quickly​ ​lost​ ​to drains.

10. Political neglect:: even​ ​40​ ​years​ ​after​ ​the​ ​India’s​ ​1st​ ​and last​ ​commission​ ​on​ ​floods​ ​was​ ​constituted​ ​,​ ​the​ ​situation​ ​has not​ ​improved.

– No​ ​national​ ​level​ ​flood​ ​control​ ​authority

– Rashtriya​ ​Barh​ ​Aayog​ ​(RBA)​ ​was​ ​set​ ​up​ ​in​ ​1976​ ​to​ ​study​ ​India’s​ ​flood​ ​control measures​ ​after​ ​the​ ​projects​ ​launched​ ​under​ ​NATIONAL​ ​FLOOD​ ​CONTROL PROGRAMME​ ​of​ ​1954​ ​,​ ​but​ ​failed​ ​to​ ​achieve​ ​much​ ​success.

– In​ ​1980s​ ​,​ ​RBA​ ​made​ ​207​ ​recommendations​ ​and​ ​4​ ​observations::

a) That​ ​flood​ ​is​ ​due​ ​to​ ​anthropogenic​ ​factors

b) It​ ​questioned​ ​effectiveness​ ​of​ ​methods​ ​adopted​ ​and​ ​suggested​ ​to​ ​halt embankments

c) Demanded​ ​for​ ​consolidation​ ​between​ ​centre​ ​and​ ​states

d) Recommend​ ​dynamic​ ​strategy​ ​to​ ​cope​ ​with​ ​changing​ ​nature​ ​of​ ​floods.

Also​ ​suggested​ ​to​ ​accurate​ ​estimation​ ​of​ ​flood​ ​prone​ ​areas​ ​and​ ​timely​ ​evaluation​ ​of flood​ ​management​ ​projects.

Lack​ ​of​ ​willpower​ ​to​ ​take​ ​action​ ​on​ ​recommendations​ ​of​ ​evaluation​ ​reports​ ​is​ ​the problem.

In​ ​1981​ ​,​ ​the​ ​Govt.accepted​ ​all​ ​RBA​ ​recommendations​ ​and​ ​circulated​ ​them​ ​to​ ​the​ ​states. However​ ​between​ ​1987-2001​ ​expert​ ​committee​ ​reviewed​ ​that​ ​implementations​ ​and​ ​found that​ ​they​ ​had​ ​not​ ​been​ ​implemented.​ ​It​ ​concluded​ ​that​ ​international​ ​and​ ​inter​ ​state​ ​issues ,​ ​fund​ ​constraints​ ​,​ ​populations​ ​pressure​ ​and​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​infrastructure​ ​were​ ​the​ ​main difficulties.

11. Shrinking water bodies : Delhi-based non-profit Centre for Science and Environment’s research shows that Chennai had more than 600 water bodies in the 1980s, but a master plan published in 2008 said that only a fraction of the lakes could be found in a healthy condition.

Lakes store the excess of water and reduce the flow but encroachment to catchment near water bodies leads to destroy them and thus flooding.

12. Illegal mining activities: Illegal mining for building material such as sand and quartzite both on the catchment and on the bed of the lake have extremely damaging impact on the water body. For example, the Jaisamand Lake in Jodhpur, once the only source of drinking water for the city, has been suffering from illegal mining in the catchment area for the last 20 years, despite a court order to stop mining in 1999. Badkhal Lake in Faridabad has dried up in the same way. Unmindful sand mining from the catchment of Vembanad Lake on the outskirts of Kochi has lowered the water level in the lake.

13. Unplanned​ ​tourism​ ​activities: ​ ​Using​ ​water​ ​bodies​ ​to​ ​attract​ ​tourists​ ​has​ ​become​ ​a​ ​threat​ ​to​ ​several urban​ ​lakes​ ​in​ ​India.​ ​Tso​ ​Morari​ ​and​ ​Pongsho​ ​lakes​ ​in​ ​Ladakh​ ​have become​ ​polluted​ ​because​ ​of​ ​unplanned​ ​and​ ​unregulated​ ​tourism. Another​ ​example​ ​is​ ​Ashtamudi​ ​Lake​ ​in​ ​Kaerala’s​ ​Kollam​ ​city​ ​that​ ​has become​ ​polluted​ ​because​ ​of​ ​spillage​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​from​ ​motor​ ​boats.

14. Absence​ ​of​ ​administrative​ ​framework: The​ ​biggest​ ​challenge​ ​remains​ ​the​ ​government​ ​apathy​ ​towards​ ​water bodies.​ ​This​ ​can​ ​be​ ​understood​ ​from​ ​the​ ​fact​ ​that​ ​the​ ​government does​ ​not​ ​even​ ​have​ ​data​ ​on​ ​the​ ​total​ ​number​ ​of​ ​urban​ ​water​ ​bodies​ ​in the​ ​country.​ ​Few​ ​cities​ ​have​ ​recorded​ ​water​ ​bodies​ ​because​ ​of​ ​court rulings. ​ ​A​ ​2010-11​ ​Comptroller​ ​and​ ​Auditor​ ​General​ ​of​ ​India​ ​report​ ​on​ ​the plight​ ​of​ ​22​ ​lakes​ ​in​ ​14​ ​states​ ​said:​ ​“MoEF&CC​ ​(Union​ ​Ministry​ ​of Environment​ ​&​ ​Climate​ ​Change)​ ​had​ ​not​ ​identified​ ​wetlands associated​ ​with​ ​each​ ​river/lake​ ​and​ ​no​ ​identifications​ ​of​ ​risks​ ​to​ ​these wetlands​ ​due​ ​to​ ​pollution​ ​of​ ​river​ ​water/lake​ ​water​ ​had​ ​been​ ​carried out​ ​by​ ​CPCB​ ​(Central​ ​Pollution​ ​ControlBoard).​ ​Further,​ ​CPCB​ ​had​ ​not identified​ ​the​ ​major​ ​aquatic​ ​species,​ ​birds,​ ​plants​ ​and​ ​animals​ ​facing risks​ ​due​ ​to​ ​pollution​ ​of​ ​rivers​ ​and​ ​lakes.”

Effects​ ​of​ ​Urban​ ​flooding

The​ ​flooding​ ​affects​ ​every​ ​section​ ​of​ ​people,​ ​systems​ ​in​ ​a city,​ ​some​ ​of​ ​them​ ​are​ ​summarised​ ​below:

Economic​ ​effects​ ​: ​ ​

•​ ​Damage​ ​to​ ​Public​ ​buildings,​ ​Public​ ​utility​ ​works,​ ​housing​ ​and​ ​house​ ​–hold​ ​assets. ​ ​ ​

•​ ​Loss​ ​of​ ​earning​ ​in​ ​industry​ ​&​ ​trade ​ ​

•​ ​Loss​ ​of​ ​earning​ ​to​ ​petty​ ​shopkeepers​ ​and​ ​workers ​ ​

•​ ​Loss​ ​of​ ​employment​ ​to​ ​daily​ ​earners ​

​•​ ​Loss​ ​of​ ​revenue​ ​due​ ​to​ ​Road,​ ​Railway,​ ​ ​Transportation​ ​Interruption ​

​•​ ​High​ ​prices​ ​for​ ​essential​ ​commodities.

After​ ​flooding,​ ​government​ ​has​ ​to​ ​put​ ​many​ ​resources​ ​for​ ​aiding​ ​e.g.,​ ​police​ ​force,​ ​fire control,​ ​aid​ ​workers​ ​and​ ​for​ ​restoration​ ​of​ ​flood​ ​affected​ ​structures,​ ​persons,​ ​live-stock etc.The​ ​flooding​ ​cause​ ​a​ ​great​ ​economic​ ​loss​ ​to​ ​the​ ​state,​ ​individual​ ​and​ ​to​ ​the​ ​society.

Environmental​ ​effects​: Damage to surroundings, forests, ridges, wild-life, zoo, urban community-trees, water bodies, shrubs, grass, fruits/vegetables in go downs etc result imbalance of eco-system of the city. Effects​ ​on​ ​traffic: Flooding​ ​results​ ​in​ ​the​ ​damages​ ​of​ ​roads,​ ​collapse​ ​of​ ​bridges​ ​causing​ ​traffic​ ​congestion which​ ​affect​ ​day-to-day​ ​life​ ​and​ ​other​ ​transportation​ ​system.

Effects​ ​on​ ​human​ ​beings:

● Human​ ​lives​ ​:​ ​Every​ ​year​ ​floods​ ​in​ ​India​ ​cause​ ​more​ ​than​ ​50​ ​lac​ ​people​ ​affected dead​ ​and​ ​become​ ​homeless.

● ​ ​Psychological​ ​impact​ ​:​ ​The​ ​people​ ​of​ ​all​ ​ages​ ​who​ ​stranded​ ​in​ ​flooding​ ​suffer​ ​a great​ ​Psychological​ ​impact​ ​disturbing​ ​their​ ​whole​ ​life​ ​and​ ​the​ ​society​ ​as​ ​whole.

Effects​ ​on​ ​livestock​ ​: The​ ​live​ ​stock​ ​is​ ​the​ ​most​ ​affected​ ​living​ ​being​ ​due​ ​to​ ​urban​ ​floods.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​difficult​ ​to​ ​care for​ ​them​ ​particularly​ ​when​ ​human​ ​being​ ​itself​ ​is​ ​in​ ​trouble.

Diseases​ ​: Flooding​ ​usually​ ​brings​ ​infectious​ ​diseases,​ ​e.g.​ ​military​ ​fever,​ ​pneumonic plagues,​ ​dermatopathia,​ ​dysentery,​ ​common​ ​cold,​ ​Dengue,​ ​breakbone​ ​fever,​ ​etc. Chances​ ​of​ ​food​ ​poisoning​ ​also​ ​become​ ​more​ ​where​ ​electric​ ​supply​ ​interrupted​ ​in food-storage​ ​area​ ​due​ ​to​ ​flooding.

Public​ ​inconveniences: The​ ​flooding​ ​causes​ ​impairment​ ​of​ ​transport​ ​and communication​ ​system​ ​due​ ​to​ ​which​ ​all​ ​people​ ​of​ ​all​ ​section​ ​get​ ​stranded​ ​e.g.​ ​school children,​ ​college​ ​students,​ ​office​ ​goers,​ ​vegetable,​ ​milk​ ​venders​ ​etc.​ ​The​ ​basic​ ​and essential​ ​commodities​ ​also​ ​do​ ​not​ ​reach​ ​to​ ​the​ ​common​ ​person.​ ​This​ ​result​ ​either starvation​ ​to​ ​poor​ ​persons​ ​or​ ​high​ ​priced​ ​to​ ​the​ ​common​ ​persons.

What​ ​should​ ​be​ ​done​ ​?

1. Scheduled​ ​Drain​ ​Clearance: Until​ ​such​ ​time​ ​as​ ​drain​ ​inverts​ ​are​ ​redesigned​ ​for self-cleansing​ ​velocities​ ​and​ ​solid​ ​waste​ ​programs​ ​are implemented,​ ​ongoing​ ​regular​ ​clearance​ ​of​ ​drains​ ​is necessary​ ​to​ ​minimise​ ​flooding​ ​risks.

2.Water​ ​Quality​ ​Improvements:​ ​At​ ​present,​ ​the​ ​principal causes​ ​of​ ​poor​ ​water​ ​quality​ ​are​ ​the​ ​sewage​ ​flows​ ​and​ ​large solid​ ​waste​ ​content​ ​in​ ​the​ ​drains.​ ​The​ ​sewer​ ​rehabilitation program​ ​would​ ​involve​ ​sewerage​ ​of​ ​unsewered​ ​premises​ ​, repair​ ​of​ ​sewer​ ​leak​ ​and​ ​upgrade​ ​of​ ​sewer​ ​capacity.

3.Capacity​ ​building​ ​ ​using​ ​hydrograph​ ​techniques,​ ​hydraulic analysis​ ​of​ ​channels,​ ​culvert​ ​and​ ​pipes,​ ​using​ ​basic​ ​and backwater​ ​techniques,​ ​planning​ ​and​ ​design​ ​for​ ​major​ ​and minor​ ​drainage​ ​systems​ ​and​ ​powers​ ​and​ ​duties​ ​relating​ ​to drainage​ ​and​ ​planning​ ​legislation

4. Community​ ​based​ ​disaster​ ​management​ ​system

5. implementing​ ​land​ ​use​ ​ ​planning​ ​,​ ​construction​ ​laws​ ​and development​ ​controls​ ​,​ ​strict​ ​adherence​ ​to​ ​enforcing legislations.

6.​ ​Education​ ​and​ ​Consultation:​ ​Environment​ ​education programs​ ​through​ ​schools,​ ​colleges,​ ​NGO’s​ ​and​ ​mass​ ​media to​ ​raise​ ​community​ ​awareness​ ​and​ ​understanding​ ​of​ ​the​ ​risk of​ ​flooding,​ ​the​ ​importance​ ​of​ ​clean​ ​waterways

7.​ ​Collection​ ​of​ ​good​ ​quality​ ​data​ ​about​ ​topology​ ​,​ ​about water​ ​bodies​ ​and​ ​other​ ​structures.

8. Improvement in ​ ​Early​ ​warning​ ​system​ ​:​ ​broadcast​ ​could help​ ​people​ ​to​ ​plan​ ​their​ ​movement​ ​and​ ​dramatically​ ​reduce hardships.

9. ​ ​Flood​ ​water​ ​can​ ​be​ ​stored​ ​for​ ​using​ ​during​ ​non-monsoon seasons​ ​with​ ​adequate​ ​infrastructure​ ​and​ ​proper​ ​planning including​ ​functional​ ​drainage​ ​system​ ​.

10.​ ​Best​ ​management​ ​practices​ ​:​ ​sediment​ ​fences, re-vegetation,​ ​sediment​ ​barriers,​ ​graved​ ​channels,​ ​dimension channels​ ​etc​ ​.

11. Restoration​ ​and​ ​conservation​ ​of​ ​water​ ​bodies​ ​along​ ​with green​ ​area​ ​development.

12. As recommended​ ​by​ ​RBA​ ​State​ ​should​ ​legislate​ ​on floodplain​ ​management​ ​,​ ​particularly​ ​encroachment​ ​and floodplain​ ​zoning​ ​(​ ​demarcating​ ​floodplains​ ​into​ ​zoning​ ​)​ ​. But​ ​apart​ ​from​ ​Rajasthan​ ​and​ ​Manipur​ ​no​ ​state​ ​has​ ​enacted laws​ ​on​ ​floodplain​ ​zones​ ​and​ ​argue​ ​that​ ​such​ ​laws​ ​would hinder​ ​development. Issue​ ​should​ ​be​ ​addressed​ ​.

13. As​ ​recommended​ ​by​ ​RBA​ ​,​ ​states​ ​should​ ​focus​ ​on maintenance​ ​of​ ​completed​ ​work​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​constructing new​ ​structures.​ ​In​ ​Assam,​ ​for​ ​instance​ ​over​ ​4,470​ ​Km embankments​ ​were​ ​constructed​ ​till​ ​1970s.​ ​Over​ ​90%​ ​of​ ​these have​ ​outlived​ ​their​ ​life​ ​and​ ​need​ ​maintenance. As​ ​flood​ ​prone​ ​areas​ ​are​ ​increasing​ ​,​ ​there​ ​is​ ​unprecedented​ ​pressure​ ​on​ ​Govt.​ ​To​ ​find​ ​a solution. Mindless​ ​urbanisation,​ ​encroaching​ ​upon​ ​and​ ​filling​ ​up natural​ ​drainage​ ​channels​ ​and​ ​urban​ ​lakes​ ​and​ ​water​ ​bodies to​ ​use​ ​the​ ​high-value​ ​urban​ ​land​ ​for​ ​buildings,​ ​illegal colonies​ ​and​ ​industries,​ ​increase​ ​in​ ​paved​ ​area​ ​are​ ​the​ ​main reasons​ ​of​ ​flooding,​ ​which​ ​should​ ​be​ ​considered.

 Facts​ ​for​ ​prelims::

● Central​ ​Water​ ​Commission​ ​is​ ​a​ ​premier​ ​Technical​ ​Organization​ ​of​ ​India​ ​in​ ​the​ ​field of​ ​Water​ ​Resources​ ​and​ ​is​ ​presently​ ​functioning​ ​as​ ​an​ ​attached​ ​office​ ​of​ ​the Ministry​ ​of​ ​Water​ ​Resources,​ ​River​ ​Development​ ​and​ ​Ganga​ ​Rejuvenation, Government​ ​of​ ​India.

The​ ​Commission​ ​is​ ​entrusted​ ​with​ ​the​ ​general​ ​responsibilities​ ​of​ ​:

● initiating,​ ​coordinating​ ​and​ ​furthering​ ​in​ ​consultation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​State​ ​Governments concerned,

● schemes​ ​for​ ​control,​ ​conservation​ ​and​ ​utilization​ ​of​ ​water​ ​resources​ ​throughout the​ ​country,​ ​for​ ​purpose​ ​of​ ​Flood​ ​Control,​ ​Irrigation,​ ​Navigation,​ ​Drinking​ ​Water Supply​ ​and​ ​Water​ ​Power​ ​Development.

● ​ ​It​ ​also​ ​undertakes​ ​the​ ​investigations,​ ​construction​ ​and​ ​execution​ ​of​ ​any​ ​such schemes​ ​as​ ​required.

● Flood​ ​Monitoring​ ​and​ ​Forecast​ ​dissemination.

http://cwc.nic.in/

● Monsoon​ ​was​ ​active​ ​over​ ​different​ ​regions​ ​of​ ​India​ ​especially​ ​in​ ​Gujarat,​ ​Eastern Uttar​ ​Pradesh,​ ​Western​ ​Bihar,​ ​Assam​ ​and​ ​lately​ ​in​ ​West​ ​Bengal​ ​during​ ​mid​ ​July 2017..

Satellite​ ​plays​ ​important​ ​role​ ​in​ ​detection​ ​and​ ​monitoring​ ​of​ ​flood​ ​situations​ ​over large​ ​regions.

a)​ ​Optical​ ​remote​ ​sensing​ ​from​ ​geostationary​ ​platform​ ​(INSAT-3D/3DR)​ ​provides rapid​ ​and​ ​valuable​ ​information​ ​on​ ​cloud​ ​patterns​ ​and​ ​meteorological​ ​parameters (rainfall);​ ​however,​ ​unable​ ​to​ ​image​ ​the​ ​surface​ ​water​ ​conditions​ ​in​ ​presence​ ​of cloud.

b)​ ​ ​Microwave​ ​remote​ ​sensing​ ​techniques​ ​have​ ​unique​ ​advantage​ ​in​ ​which electromagnetic​ ​radiation​ ​penetrate​ ​the​ ​clouds​ ​and​ ​senses​ ​the​ ​surface hydrological​ ​characteristics.

c)The​ ​data​ ​from​ ​SCATSAT-1​ ​(launched​ ​by​ ​PSLV-C35​ ​on​ ​September​ ​26,​ ​2016)​ ​was used​ ​for​ ​the​ ​detection​ ​of​ ​the​ ​flood​ ​situations​ ​over​ ​India.  SCATSAT-1​ ​is​ ​a​ ​continuity​ ​mission​ ​for​ ​Oceansat-2​ ​Scatterometer​ ​for​ ​Ocean weather​ ​forecasting,​ ​cyclone​ ​detection​ ​and​ ​tracking

d)​ ​Sentinel-1A,​ ​a​ ​C-band​ ​SAR​ ​imaging​ ​satellite​ ​high​ ​resolution​ ​data​ ​on​ ​July​ ​24, 2017​ ​helped​ ​to​ ​compare​ ​inundated​ ​regions​ ​over​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​Gujarat.

● The​ ​National​ ​Disaster​ ​Response​ ​Force​ ​(NDRF)​ ​is​ ​a​ ​specialised​ ​force​ ​constituted “for​ ​the​ ​purpose​ ​of​ ​specialist​ ​response​ ​to​ ​a​ ​threatening​ ​disaster​ ​situation​ ​or disaster”​ ​under​ ​the​ ​Disaster​ ​Management​ ​Act, 2005 ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​

Apex​ ​Body​ ​for​ ​Disaster​ ​Management​ ​in​ ​India​ ​is​ ​the​ ​National​ ​Disaster Management​ ​Authority​ ​(NDMA). The​ ​Chairman​ ​of​ ​the​ ​NDMA​ ​is​ ​the​ ​Prime​ ​Minister

The​ ​‘nodal​ ​Ministry’​ ​in​ ​the​ ​central​ ​government​ ​for​ ​management​ ​of​ ​natural​ ​disasters​ ​is​ ​the Ministry​ ​of​ ​Home​ ​Affairs​ ​(MHA).

The​ ​responsibility​ ​for​ ​Disaster​ ​Management​ ​in​ ​India’s​ ​federal​ ​system​ ​is​ ​that​ ​of​ ​the​ ​State Government.

When​ ​’calamities​ ​of​ ​severe​ ​nature’​ ​occur,​ ​the​ ​Central​ ​Government​ ​is​ ​responsible​ ​for providing​ ​aid​ ​and​ ​assistance​ ​to​ ​the​ ​affected​ ​state,​ ​including​ ​deploying,​ ​at​ ​the​ ​State’s request,​ ​of​ ​Armed​ ​Forces,​ ​Central​ ​Paramilitary​ ​Forces,​ ​National​ ​Disaster​ ​Response​ ​Force (NDRF),​ ​and​ ​such​ ​communication,​ ​air​ ​and​ ​other​ ​assets,​ ​as​ ​are​ ​available​ ​and​ ​needed.

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