02,December,18 Daily newspaper article’s summary

02,December,18 Daily newspaper article’s summary

Summary of newspaper articles from ‘The Hindu’, ‘Economic Times’ and PIB
ARISE IAS: Demystifying UPSC IAS exams

Wage drag: on ILO’s Global Wage Report:
1.Extending the time horizon, it reveals that real wages almost tripled in the developing and emerging countries of the G20 between 1999 and 2017, while in the advanced economies the increase over the same period aggregated to a far lower 9%.
2.The intensification of competition in the wake of globalisation, accompanied by a worldwide decline in the bargaining power of workers has resulted in a decoupling between wages and labour productivity.
3.The Washington-based Economic Policy Institute uses the U.S. example to buttress the argument that widening inequality is slowing demand and growth by shifting larger shares of income “to rich households that save rather than spend”.

The death debate: on Justice Joseph’s views on capital punishment:
1.The Law Commission, in its Report in 2015, said the constitutional regulation of capital punishment attempted in that case has failed to prevent death sentences from being “arbitrarily and freakishly imposed”.
2.Theories of punishment on whether it ought to be punitive, retributive, reformative or restorative are less relevant to the public imagination and the law enforcers when the crime is grave and heinous.
3.This conflict can be resolved only if the debate is taken to a higher plane: a moral position that there shall be no death penalty in law, regardless of the nature, circumstances and consequences of an offence.

Cool it: on labour loss due to heatwave:
1.The staggering loss of an estimated 153 billion hours of labour during 2017 due to rising temperatures around the globe is a reminder to governments that they are not doing enough to dramatically curb greenhouse gas emissions.
2.The Lancet countdown on health and climate has reported that India was particularly affected by the rising frequency of heatwave events and lost about 75 billion hours of work, a significant part of it in the agricultural sector.
3.Coming on the eve of the UN climate conference in Katowice, Poland, the report of the Lancet panel for 2018 brings clarity, placing connected issues in perspective for governmental action.

Number theory: on lowering UPA-era GDP growth rate:
1.Mainly done to enable precise comparison and analysis, it is a difficult exercise prone to contestation as it involves the inclusion of newer data sources, exclusion of outdated ones and making some subjective assumptions in the process.
2.Throw in the political element, and GDP backcasting can become a controversial exercise, as it has now become in the case of the release of back series data from 2005-06 to 2011-12, the new base year.
3.The data computed by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) and released by the Niti Aayog show that India never really grew in double-digits in 2010-11, nor was it the high-growth economy in the five years preceding this as earlier thought to be.

Together in an uncertain world:
1.The new strategy underscores a transformative shift in Brussels vis-à-vis India and talks of key focus areas such as the need to conclude a broader Strategic Partnership Agreement, intensifying dialogue on Afghanistan and Central Asia, strengthening technical cooperation on fighting terrorism, and countering radicalisation, violent extremism and terrorist financing.
2.Despite sharing a congruence of values and democratic ideals, India and the EU have both struggled to build a partnership that can be instrumental in shaping the geopolitics and geoeconomics of the 21st century.
3.Where individual nations of the EU started becoming more pragmatic in their engagement with India, Brussels continued to be big-brotherly in its attitude on political issues and ignorant of the geostrategic imperatives of Indian foreign and security policies.

What is Marshall-Lerner condition in economics?:
1.This refers to the proposition that the devaluation of a country’s currency will lead to an improvement in its balance of trade with the rest of the world only if the sum of the price elasticities of its exports and imports is greater than one.
2.For instance, if total export revenue falls due to inelastic demand for a country’s exports and total import expense rises due to inelastic demand for its imports, this will lead to a further worsening of the country’s trade deficit.
3.So devaluing its currency may not always be the best way forward for a country looking to reduce its trade deficit.

Ayodhya: will it be an issue in the 2019 elections?:
1.In the context of a virulent mobilisation without a palpable enemy, the discourse around the construction of the temple raises the question of the viability of political instrumentality in stoking the issue before every general election and the demand that Hindus prove their faith.
2.It sounds out of place that nearly two years after Prime Minister Narendra Modi opened the BJP’s campaign for the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections in favour of vikas (development), he will change course.
3.But even the ‘secular’ opponents of the Rath Yatra and Babri Masjid demolition — former Chief Ministers Lalu Prasad and Mulayam Singh Yadav in Bihar and U.P., respectively — lost their elections largely because they were perceived as not having done enough development in their States.

Walking the tightrope:
1.The U.S. National Security Strategy of November 2017 highlighted the importance of “energy dominance — America’s central position in the global energy system as a leading producer, consumer, and innovator”.
2.Indeed, American naval power is indispensable for preserving maritime freedom and security in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.
3.Control over Chabahar could put the ace card in its hands as it deals with the competition between China, India and Russia in South and Central Asia.

Sabarimala politics:
1.Sections of the Sangh Parivar believe that if the Ram Janmabhoomi movement helped the BJP gain a foothold in the Hindi heartland, the Ayyappa temple agitation will increase their influence in the south.
2.“In contrast to his traditional tranquil, compassionate and benevolent image, Ram was depicted in posters and books circulated by the Sangh Parivar as riding a rath and pulling his bow string, the arrow poised to annihilate.
3.Mr. Pillai has already made it clear that “the agitation will be expanded to other States.” However, with the ruling CPI(M) firmly supporting the Supreme Court verdict and the Congress indirectly echoing the BJP’s views, how this strategy will pan out is another question.

Data Point: Life in a metro:
1.A comparison of Metro rail networks across various cities in India shows that there are wide variations in the average fare charged.
2.While a metro ride in Mumbai costs the most, it is the least in Kochi.
3.The Hindu data team plots the ridership data, average fare and operational network across metros.

Neighbourhood first?:
1.In the Maldives, when emergency was declared by the previous regime of Abdulla Yameen, New Delhi made no attempt to threaten him militarily despite expectations of domestic commentators and Western diplomats.
2.While the change in position was eventually achieved by a high-level outreach by the Russian government, which has projected the conference as a big diplomatic success, India’s participation had been nudged by President Ghani himself.
3.While it seems unlikely that the larger shift required for a Prime Ministerial visit to Pakistan for the SAARC summit is possible before elections next year, it is not inconceivable that people-to-people ties, of the kind Mr. Modi spoke of in his speech comparing the transformative potential of the Kartarpur corridor to the falling of the Berlin wall, will be allowed to grow.

The case for a progressive international:
1.There are other contemporary examples: because of its attempts to make essential medicines affordable through amendments to its Patent Act, India has come under pressure from the U.S. and the European Union (at the behest of prominent pharmaceutical companies), while finding support and emulation in countries like South Africa and Thailand.
2.India’s battle to preserve affordable access to medicines is part of a larger struggle, where participation in the global intellectual property regime has severely constrained the ability of countries to respond to public health crises.
3.The central insight of DiEM25 — one of whose co-founders, Yanis Varoufakis, was Greece’s Finance Minister during the debt crisis — is precisely that today a progressive movement oriented towards social justice and fundamental rights cannot succeed if it is constrained within national borders.

Charge of jobless growth during NDA regime ‘spurious’: Niti Aayog vice-chief Rajiv Kumar:
1.NEW DELHI: Terming the criticism of jobless growth during the NDA government as ‘spurious,’ Niti Aayog vice-chairman Rajiv Kumar has said that 70 lakh jobs were created in the financial year 2017-18 alone.
2.Kumar further said that growth in sales of transport vehicles, huge disbursement of Mudra loans and EPFO data show that enough opportunities for employment and self-employment were created during the past four years of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government.
3.”With all due respect, former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh does not put forward the data (on employment generation), I think this is a spurious charge and I think the debate should be much more on further improving the quality of the jobs,” Kumar told PTI.

Finished steel exports fall over 23%; imports up 17% in October:
1.India’s finished steel exports fell by 23.4 per cent to 0.596 million tonnes (MT) in October 2018, according to Joint Plant Committee .
2.The country had exported 0.778 MT of finished steel during the same month a year ago, Joint Plant Committee (JPC), the only institution that collects and maintains data on the Indian steel and iron sector, said in its latest report.
3.” PSUs … when they have advantages like captive mines… why don’t they utilise it…why not to put up washeries… why not to go for value addition… special grades of steel,” Singh had said, stressing upon the need to curb imports.

Private sector must ensure that the treatment provided by them is not only accessible but also affordable: Vice President:
1.Expressing concern over the prematurity and low birth weight, pneumonia and diarrheal diseases, among others were main causes of child mortality in India, he stressed the need to step up the efforts in a concerted manner to meet the Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDGs).
2.The Vice President said that participation and cooperation of both Public and Private Sector is essential to improve the preventive and treatment interventions for newborns and those below five years to achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal target of reducing under-five mortality to 25 per 1,000 live births by 2030.
3.I do hope the Rainbow Children’s Hospital will provide specialized but affordable care to children and contribute to the larger national mission of ensuring all infants survive, thrive and grow up into healthy active citizens of the New India we all are aspiring for.

Shri Sunil Arora takes over as new Chief Election Commissioner of India:
1.The entire democratic world looks up to it and those countries who are transiting towards democracies, for them this Commission is a beacon of hope.
2.It is with utmost humility and an enormous sense of responsibility that I have just taken over as Chief Election Commissioner.
3.We will try to meticulously prepare on all fronts whether it is ER, EVM, VVPATs disseminations through our very credible programme of SVEEP ensuring voting rights through ETPBS for our soldiers, for persons with disability and give the country a fair, credible, free, impartial and ethical election.

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